Magic squares belonging nowadays to light mathematics go back to the past of
3000 years. Magic squares are tables consisting of different definite numbers
whose sum in every row, column and diagonal is equal. In consequence of the
constancy of the sums this kind of squares was called magic or charming square
and the sum itself was called magic number.
In the old times people believed in its magic power because of credulity, of
the lack of knowledge, and of their helplessness against natural forces. They
attribute magical power to them and held their creators for magi or geniuses.
People used to wear magic squares as amulets and they were believed to be protective
against various dangers.
One of the most famous copperplates entitled "Melancholy" made by
the painter and mathematician Dürer AJTÓSI, Hungarian by birth, contains
the first magic square that could be seen by Europeans. The specialty of this
square is that the two middle numbers of the last row indicates the birth year
of the painting (1514).